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Intel® Embedded Graphics Drivers FAQ

Glossary

Term Definition
16CIF Sixteen-times CIF video format resolution, quadrupled in both dimensions. NTSC is 1408 x 960, PAL is 1408 x 1152. See CIF definition below.
4CIF Four-times CIF video format resolution, doubled in both dimensions. NTSC is 704 x 480, PAL is 704 x 576. See CIF definition below.
ADD card Accelerated graphics port (AGP) digital display. An adapter card that can be inserted into the PCIe* x16 port of Intel® chipset family-based systems. ADD cards allow configurations for TV-out, LVDS, and TMDS output (i.e., televisions, digital displays, and flat-panel displays).
AIM Add-in module.
Alpha blending A method for merging a smaller picture or alphanumeric set of characters into a larger picture in such a fashion so that you can still see the original picture (i.e., translucent).
Alpha overlay A special overlay plane with a picture or alphanumeric displayed over the main display, typically in a transparent fashion.
API Application programming interface.
BDA BIOS data area. A storage area that contains information about the current state of a display, including mode number, number of columns, cursor position, etc.
BIOS Basic input/output system. The Intel® Embedded Media and Graphics Driver (Intel® EMGD) interacts with two BIOS systems: system BIOS and video BIOS (VBIOS). VBIOS is a component of the system BIOS.
BLDK Boot loader development kit.
Blitting Blitting or Blit is an abbreviation for block transfer. Blits are primitive 2-D operations where simple bitmaps are copied from one location in memory without changing size or format.
BOM Bill of material. The BOM list is referred to as the Intel EMGD packaging list.
CED Configuration EDitor. Graphical pre-installation utility allows easy creation of consolidated driver installation packages for Windows*, Windows CE*, and Linux* operating systems, and VBIOS across numerous platforms and display combinations. CED currently only runs on Windows systems.
CIF Common intermediate format standardizes the horizontal and vertical pixel resolutions in Y'CbCr video (see also YUV). NTSC is 352 x 240. PAL is 352 x 288. Prefixes identify resolution changes from the standard format. For example, QCIF or "Quarter CIF" has one fourth of the area as "quarter" implies the height and width of the frame are each halved.
Clone display configuration A type of display configuration that drives two display devices, each displaying the same content, but that can have different resolutions and (independent) timings. Compare twin-display configuration and DIH display configuration.
Contrast Contrast is the measure of the difference between light and dark on a display. If the contrast is increased, the difference between light and dark is increased, so something white will be very bright and something black will be very dark.
COPP* Certified output protection protocol* (COPP) is a Microsoft-defined API to provide an application with information about what output protection options are available on a system. COPP is used to control the command/status chain between applications and a graphics port driver.
D3D* Microsoft Direct3D*, a 3-D graphics API as a component of DirectX* technology.
DC Display configuration.
Intel® DDCT Intel® Dynamic Display Configuration Technology (Intel DDCT).
DIH display configuration Dual independent head. A type of display configuration that supports two displays with different content on each display device. Intel EMGD supports extended mode for Microsoft Windows systems and Xinerama* for Linux systems.
DirectDraw* A component of the DirectX Graphics API in Microsoft Windows OS.
DisplayPort* A new digital display interface standard that defines a license-free, royalty-free, digital audio/video interconnect. DisplayPort currently supports a maximum of 10.8 Gbit/s data rate and Wide Quad extended graphics array (WQXGA) (2560 x 1600) resolution over a 3-meter cable. For encryption purposes, DisplayPort includes optional DisplayPort content protection (DPCP).
DRM Digital rights management, a generic term that refers to access control technologies to limit usage of digital media or devices. DRM is usually applied to creative media (music, films, etc.).
DTD Detailed timing descriptor. A set of timing values used for EDID-less devices.
DVI Digital video interface.
DVO Digital video output.
DXVA DirectX video acceleration API, a Microsoft API specification for the Microsoft Windows platforms that allows video decoding to be hardware accelerated. DXVA is used by the video player software to access the following hardware video acceleration features present in many Intel® chipsets:
  • Video decoding acceleration
  • Visual quality enhancement acceleration
  • Processing amplifier (ProcAmp)—post-processing video
  • Deinterlacing
  • Frame rate conversion
EBDA Extended BIOS data area. An interface that allows the system BIOS and option ROMs to request access to additional memory.
EDID Extended display identification data. A VESA standard that allows the display device to send identification and capabilities information to Intel EMGD. Intel EMGD reads all EDID data, including resolution and timing data, from the display, thus negating the need for configuring DTD data for the device.  CRT/VGA monitors exchange EDID information over the I2C bus with Intel EMGD so the driver generates only display modes and timings that are compatible with the monitor to which it is connected.  LVDS panels do not allow for exchange of EDID information hence these displays are called "EDID-less."
EDID-less A display that does not have the capability to send identification and timing information to the driver and requires DTD information to be defined in the driver.
eDP Embedded DisplayPort.
EFI Extensible firmware interface. EFI defines an interface between an operating system and platform firmware. EFI is intended as a significantly improved replacement for the old legacy BIOS.
eIA Embedded Intel® architecture.
Intel® EMGD Intel® Embedded Media and Graphics Driver. Intel EMGD is comprised of a runtime graphics driver and a video BIOS firmware component.
EMI Electromagnetic interference.
Extended clone mode A feature that allows you to have different sized displays in clone mode.
FBC Frame buffer compression.
Framebuffer A region of physical memory used to store and render graphics to a display.
GDI Graphics device interface. A low-level API used with Microsoft Windows operating systems.
GEN3 Graphics core in Intel® 910/915 Express Chipset family.
GEN3.5 Graphics core in Intel® 945 Express Chipset family.
GEN4 Graphics core in Intel® 965 Express Chipset family.
GEN5 Graphics core in the Intel® GL40/GM45 Express Chipset family.
GenX GenX is a term Intel uses to describe the Intel-created graphics technology integrated into scalable / low-power product lines. Examples: Intel® Core™ processor family, 4-series chipsets (e.g., Intel GM45 Express Chipset family), Intel 915 Express Chipset family.
Intel® GMA Driver Intel® Graphics Media Accelerator Driver. Refers to both the graphic hardware in Intel chipsets as well as the desktop/mobile driver. The Intel GMA Driver is not intended for use in embedded applications.
GMCH Graphics and memory controller hub.
GMS Graphics mode select (stolen memory).
HAL Hardware abstraction layer. An API that allows access to the Intel chipsets.
HDCP High-bandwidth digital-content protection, a specification that uses the DVI interface. HDCP encrypts the transmission of digital content between the video source, or transmitter and the digital display, or receiver.
HDMI* High-definition multimedia interface, an uncompressed, all-digital audio/video interface. It allows for transmission of digital audiovisual content on the same physical link (DVD player, TV's, set top boxes, etc.). It is defined around DVI 1.0 specification and is backward compatible with DVI command and control data. HDMI implements content protection via HDCP. Administered by HDMI LLC (limited liability corporation). Licensing and royalty fees apply.
IAL Interface abstraction layer. An API that allows access to graphics interfaces including the GDI and DirectDraw.
iDCT Inverse discrete cosine transformation (hardware feature).
Intel® Embedded Graphics Drivers Intel Embedded Graphics Drivers are comprised of a runtime graphics driver and a video BIOS firmware component.
Intel® EGS Intel® embedded graphics suite. Runtime graphics driver plus a VBIOS component.
INF file A standard Microsoft Windows text file, referred to as an information file, used by Microsoft Windows operating systems to provide information to the driver. The default .inf file for the Intel Embedded Graphics Drivers is iegd.inf. You can create customized parameters using the CED utility.
IP Intellectual property.
LPCM Linear pulse code modulation is a method of encoding audio information digitally. The term also refers collectively to formats using this method of encoding.
LVDS Low voltage differential signaling. Used with flat-panel displays, such as a laptop computer display.
MRD Market requirements document.
MSAA Multi-sample anti-aliasing.
NTSC National Television System Committee. An analog TV standard used primarily in North and Central America, Japan, the Philippines, South Korea, and Taiwan. Its resolutions are based on 525-line systems. Compare PAL.
OSAL Operating system abstraction layer. An API that provides access to operating systems, including Microsoft Windows and Linux.
Open pluggable specification The open pluggable specification helps standardize the design and development of digital signage devices and pluggable media players. Intel created the OPS to address digital signage market fragmentation and simplify device installation, usage, maintenance, and upgrades.
Option ROM (OROM) Code that is integrated with the system BIOS and resides on a flash chip on the motherboard. The Intel® embedded video BIOS is an example of an option ROM.
OPS See open pluggable specification.
OS Operating system.
PAL Phase alternating lines. An analog TV standard used in Europe, South America, Africa, and Australia. Its resolutions are based on 625-line systems. Compare NTSC.
PAVP Protected audio/video path. PAVP protects the data path within a computer during video playback (e.g., Blu-ray* discs). It is supported by newer chipsets (e.g., Intel® GM45 Express Chipset) and operating systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7). PAVP does the video decoding in the chipset to reduce processor load. PAVP is a mechanism to get the application and the graphics hardware to secretly agree on the same encryption key.
PCF Parameters configuration file.
PCI Peripheral component interface.
Port driver A driver used with the sDVO interfaces of the graphics and memory controller hub (GMCH).
POST Power-on self test.
PowerVR* The scalable/low-power Intel® Atom™ processor-based graphics technologies. Example: Intel® System Controller Hub (Intel® SCH) US15W chipset.
PRD Product requirements document.
PVR* See PowerVR.
PWM Pulse width modulation.
QCIF Quarter CIF video format resolution, halved in both dimensions. NTSC is 176 x 120, PAL is 176 x 144. See CIF definition above.
QVGA Quarter VGA. A popular term for a computer display with 320 x 240 resolution. QVGA displays are most often seen within mobile phones, PDAs, and some handheld game consoles. Often the displays are in a portrait orientation rather than landscape and are referred to as 240 x 320.
Rendering Generating an image from a model using automated calculations. The model uniformly describes three dimensional objects.
Reserved memory A region of physical memory in a Windows* CE system set aside for BIOS, VBIOS, and graphics driver operations. Reserved memory can be configured for use by the operating system and other applications when not in use by the BIOS.
Saturation Monitors and scanners are based on the additive color system using RGB, starting with black and then adding red, green, and blue to achieve color. Saturation is the colorfulness of an area judged in proportion to its brightness. Full saturation of RGB gives the perception of white, and images are created that radiate varying amounts of RGB, or varying saturation of RGB.
SCART French Acronym – Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorécepteurs et Téléviseurs. A video interface possessing up to four analog signals (Red/Green/Blue/Composite PAL). S-Video (Luma/Chroma) PAL video is possible over the SCART interface as well.
SCS Software compliance statement.
sDVO Serial digital video output.
Shading The process of altering a color based on its angle to lights and its distance from lights to create a photorealistic effect.
Single display configuration A type of display configuration that supports one and only one display device.
SQCIF Sub-QCIF video format resolution, smaller than QCIF but still evenly divisible by 16 pixels in each dimension to correspond with the size of a macroblock. Its resolution is 128 x 96. See CIF definition above.
SSC Spread spectrum clock.
Stolen memory A region of physical memory (RAM) set aside by the system BIOS for input and output operations. The amount of stolen memory is configurable. Stolen memory is not accessible to the operating system or applications.
System BIOS The standard BIOS used for basic input and output operations on PCs.
Tizen*/Moblin* Tizen* is an Intel-sponsored open-source operating system for building a Linux*-based platform for mobile devices, including tablets, smartphones, and in-vehicle infotainment systems. Moblin* was an earlier open-source operating system that merged with Maemo* in 2009 to create MeeGo*, which the Linux Foundation canceled in September 2011 in favor of Tizen.
TMDS Transitioned minimized differential signaling. Used with DVI displays, such as plasma TVs.
TNL or T&L Transform and lighting. Transform performance determines how complex objects can be and how many can appear in a scene without sacrificing frame rate. Lighting techniques add to a scene's realism by changing the appearance of objects based on light sources.
TOM Top of memory.
TSR Terminate and stay resident. A program that is loaded and executes in RAM, but when it terminates, the program stays resident in memory and can be executed again immediately without being reloaded into memory.
Twin-display configuration A type of display configuration that supports two display devices each of which has the same content, resolution, and timings. Compare clone display configuration. Note: Twin configuration is not supported on the Intel SCH US15W chipset and Intel Atom processor E6xx series.
UBS User build system. A process for building a VBIOS.
UEFI Unified extensible firmware interface, a boot loader and runtime interface between platform firmware and an operating system. The goal of the interface is to replace the aging PC BIOS.
VBIOS Video basic input/output system. A component of system BIOS that drives graphics input and output.
VESA Video Electronics Standards Organization.
VExt Vertical extended configuration. A dual display configuration under Windows CE only. CED needs to be configured appropriately per the instructions in the Intel Embedded Media Graphics Driver, EFI video driver, and video BIOS user guide or CED help to enable VExt.
VGA Video graphics array. A graphics display standard developed by IBM that uses analog signals rather than digital signals.
VLD Variable length decoding.
VMR Video mixing render.
WHQL
Windows Hardware Quality Labs. WHQL is a testing organization responsible for certifying the quality of Windows drivers and hardware that run on Windows operating systems.
WPF Windows Presentation Foundation.
Xinerama* Xinerama is an extended desktop-like mode for Linux and Moblin operating systems. From a hardware perspective, Xinerama is comprised of two frame buffers, two pipes, and two ports. Linux X-Server uses the term "Xinerama" to describe an extension that presents the multiple independent displays to the user as a single, large virtual framebuffer. Like Windows XP* Extended, separate areas of the virtual framebuffer map to each of the independent display framebuffers. The X-Server has some restrictions associated with this extension: All displays must be the same color depth and accelerated OpenGL* (OGL) is disabled. Linux X-Server without the Xinerama extension does not have the extra layer to combine the displays so each display's framebuffer is independently addressable by the user/application.
YUV Informal but imprecise reference to the video image format, Y'CbCr. The Y' component is luma, a nonlinear video quality derived from RGB data denoted without color. The chroma components, Cb and Cr, correspond nonlinearly with U and V as differences between the blue and luma, and between the red and luma, respectively.

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